In electrical engineering, the power factor of an AC electrical power system is defined as the ratio of the real power flowing to the load to the apparent power in the circuit. It is a dimensionless number in the closed interval of -1 to 1. A power factor of less than one means that the voltage and current waveforms are not in phase, reducing the instantaneous product of the two waveforms (V x I). Real power is the capacity of the circuit for performing work at a particular time. Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit.
Due to energy stored in the load and returned to the source or due to a non-linear load that distorts the wave shape of the current drawn from the source, the apparent power will be greater than the real power. A negative power factor occurs when the device (usually the load) generates energy, which flows back towards the source, which is generally considered the generator. In an electric power system, a load with a low power factor draws more current than a load with a high power factor for the same amount of useful power transferred. The higher currents increase the energy lost in the distribution system and require larger wires and other equipment. Because of the costs of larger equipment and wasted energy, electrical utilities will usually charge higher costs to industrial or commercial customers with a low power factor. Inductive loads with low lagging power factors (such as induction motors) can be corrected with a passive network of phase-to-phase capacitors. Non-linear loads, such as rectifiers, variable speed drives, switch-mode power supplies, etc., distort the current form and exhibit leading power factor loads. Just like the use of capacitors that correct power factor on lagging power factor loads, inductors correct the power factors on leading power factor loads.
The Tune® is an inductive transformer device. There are no capacitors. Tune® reduces the noise created outside the fundamental 60Hz frequency. Tune® makes no claims to be a power factor correction device, only to reduce noise outside the fundamental frequency.